Saco-Indonesia.com - Anak-anak akan melewati beberapa tahap perkembangan yang ikut memengaruhi perilaku mereka. Tak jarang perubahan perilaku yang dialami anak dianggap sebagai sebuah fase yang akan berlalu dengan sendirinya.  Padahal, beberapa perubahan perilaku itu bisa menjadi gejala dari adanya gangguan mental yang dialami anak.

Para peneliti dari Harvard Medical School menemukan bahwa separuh dari kasus gangguan mental dimulai dari usia sangat muda, 14 tahun dan tigaperempatnya terjadi sejak usia 24 tahun.  Karena kemunculannya yang sangat dini itu, maka terapi dan penanganannya harus dilakukan sejak awal pula.

Pusat pengendalian dan pencegahan penyakit AS (CDC) menemukan bahwa satu dari lima anak di AS mengalami gangguan mental. Gangguan pemusatan perhatian (ADHD), anak pemberontak (oppositional defiant disorder/OOD), spektrum autisme, gangguan mood dan kecemasan, depresi, adalah jenis gangguan mental yang paling banyak ditemui.

Orangtua berperan besar dalam mengurangi keparahan gangguan tersebut dengan cara memberi perhatian pada perubahan perilaku anak. Orangtua juga bisa menggunakan intuisi mereka jika merasa "ada sesuatu yang salah" dengan anak mereka.

Berikut adalah 5 gejala yang perlu diwaspadai dari anak-anak dan remaja Anda.

1. Perubahan mood yang berlangsung lama

Perubahan mood yang berlangsung lebih dari dua minggu adalah indikator kuat adanya gangguan mental pada anak. Perubahan mood ini bisa bervariasi mulai dari hiperaktif sampai terlalu melankolis tanpa alasan yang kuat.

Menurut The National Institute of Mental Health, perilaku "sangat gembira" atau mania dan perasaan "down" atau depresi bisa menjadi tanda adanya gejala gangguan bipolar. Tetapi, perilaku hiperaktif pada anak yang tidak diikuti dengan gejala lesu setelahnya adalah karateristik normal pada anak.

2. Cemas dan takut berlebihan

Takut dan khawatir adalah hal yang wajar dialami anak usia dini. Normal saja mereka merasa takut pada gelap, membayangkan sosok monster, atau takut berpisah dengan orangtua. Untuk anak usia sekolah, cemas sebelum tampil di sekolah atau takut tak diterima teman-temannya, adalah respon yang sehat.

Namun, berhati-hatilah jika rasa takut yang dialami anak sudah berlebihan sehingga mengganggu aktivitas mereka. Mungkin sudah saatnya Anda melakukan intervensi.

3. Perubahan perilaku ekstrem

Mulai membangkang juga adalah fase yang akan dilalui dalam tahap perkembangan emosional anak untuk menuju kemandiriannya. Tetapi ada perilaku pembangkangan yang sangat ekstrem yang disebut dengan OOD. Biasanya gangguan ini dimulai saat anak berusia 8 tahun atau sebelum masuk usia remaja. Salah satu contoh perilaku tersebut adalah membeli beberapa games tanpa ada minat untuk memainkannya.

Gangguan mental yang erat kaitannya dengan perubahan perilaku adalah ADHD, kecemasan, depresi, atau gangguan bipolar.

4. Perubahan fisik, berat badan naik atau turun drastis

Diperkirakan 80 persen orang yang mengalami gangguan mental mengalami obesitas atau kegemukan. Perubahan fisik yang mendadak yang tidak terkait dengan pubertas bisa menjadi indikator anak menderita gangguan. Demikian pula halnya jika anak tampak tidak nafsu makan, bisa menjadi gejala depresi.

Perubahan fisik yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan alkohol atau obat terlarang juga merupakan gejala depresi pada anak. Para pakar menyebutkan, risiko anak menderita depresi lebih besar jika salah satu atau kedua orangtua juga menderita depresi.

5. Kurang konsentrasi

Anak yang sangat sulit berkonsentrasi juga perlu dicurigai mengalami gangguan mental. Tapi orangtua juga perlu membedakan anak yang memang ingin menonton TV ketimbang mengerjakan PR, dengan anak yang tidak mampu fokus pada acara favoritnya di TV.

Ketidakmampuan untuk berkonsentrasi pada tugas sederhana adalah gejala dari ADHD atau depresi. Kurang fokus juga bisa disebabkan karena pikiran mereka terpusat pada rasa malu, bersalah, atau kematian. Kurang konsentrasi pada anak akan tampak nyata pengaruhnya pada nilai akademik atau pergaulannya.

 

Editor:Liwon Maulana

Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias

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